God gives humans dominion over animals in Genesis 1:26–28. Christians often use this term to mean humans can do anything to animals with impunity. However, the context is often skipped
as Genesis 1:29 says that humans are to eat only plants. The overall context is the garden of Eden, where God created humans and animals to live in harmony. In Genesis 2:19–20, God
tells Adam to name the animals, implying a caring and benevolent relationship, much like humans behave with companion animals today. Thus, dominion means kindly looking after the animals.
Furthermore, dominion is used again in Psalm 72:8. This psalm is about the behavior of a righteous king. Verse 4 says that this king will defend the poor. Verse 7 speaks of righteousness and
peace. Finally, verse 13 says that the king will feel pity for the weak and the needy and save their lives. Thus, dominion towards animals means defending and sympathizing with them, as a
good king should.
Additionally, Psalm 72 is a prophecy about Jesus. How did Jesus show dominion as a king? Jesus showed compassion (Luke 7:13) and promoted mercy (Matthew 5:7). His most important teachings were to treat others the way you want to be treated (Luke 6:31), love your neighbor as yourself (Matthew 22:39), and the importance of serving others (Mark 9:35). The Christian Animal Rights Association advocates showing dominion over animals with New Earth Abolition (NEA), a system of ethics that focuses on God’s harmonious plans for animals on the New Earth (Isaiah 11:6–9), combined with Jesus’ teachings on equality and servanthood. Thus, our ministry believes dominion is best expressed by humbling ourselves and becoming servants (Matthew 23:10–11) to the animals, treating them how we want to be treated (Matthew 22:39; Luke 6:31). This behavior has the end goal of the peaceful world described in Isaiah 11:6, “The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the young goat, and the calf and the lion and the fattened calf together; and a little child shall lead them.”
It depends on what is meant by heaven. There is the present spiritual heaven, where believers go when they die (Luke 23:43). There is also the New Earth (Revelation 21:1), a restored eternal paradise that Jesus will inaugurate when he returns, which is synonymous with heaven. Animals are present in the current spiritual heaven (Revelation 5:13) and on the New Earth (Isaiah 11:6–9, 34:14–17, 65:25; Hosea 2:18). Revelation 5:13 does not mention what types of animals, but Isaiah 11:6–9 and 65:25 mention wolves, lambs, oxen, lions, and snakes. Finally, Hosea 2:18 and Isaiah 34:14–15 mention a variety of wild animals and birds.
Isaiah 11:6–9, 65:25; and Hosea 2:18 describe a variety of animals that will be present when Jesus returns to create the New Earth. It’s unclear whether those are new or recreated animals. This begs the question of whether animals have immortal souls. The Bible is unclear about this. Humans are explicitly said to have souls (1 Thessalonians 5:23). Some verses seem to indicate that earthly animals do not experience an afterlife (Psalm 49:12, 20; 2 Peter 2:12; Jude 1:10). However, these verses may be just physical observations. On the contrary, Ecclesiastes 3:19–21 specifically questions where the spirits of humans and animals go after they die. Ecclesiastes 12:7 seems to answer the question, implying that both human and animal spirits return to God. Since animals have an eternal spirit, they may have an immortal soul, as Hebrews 4:12 implies that the soul and the spirit are connected but can be separated. Furthermore, Psalm 36:6, 116:6; and Luke 3:6 offer some possible evidence that animals have a soul and thus, experience an afterlife. Luke 3:6 especially may indicate that all types of flesh, thus animals, may see an afterlife. In conclusion, there is good biblical evidence to declare that animals do have immortal souls.
God first promises the Israelites “a land flowing with milk and honey” in Exodus 3:8, and the phrase is mentioned many times in the Old Testament. This is commonly thought to mean that the Israelites were promised a land with plenty of animal milk and bee honey for humans to eat. However, humans tend to think everything is about us. We believe a better interpretation is that a land flowing with milk means that babies are being born from various species. A land flowing with honey then means that the bees are pollinating the flora. Thus, we believe a land flowing with milk and honey means that it is a place where all species thrive alongside their young with abundant vegetation. It is a land where no one goes hungry. This interpretation makes more sense, as Deuteronomy 6:3 discusses “multiplying greatly” and 11:9 mentions “offspring” alongside “a land flowing with milk and honey.” Even if the verse is talking about human consumption of milk and honey, this is still on our current fallen earth. This does not reflect the ideal vegan diet God intended in Eden (Genesis 1:29–30) or the implied vegan diet God has planned on the eternal New Earth (Isaiah 11:6).
This statement is taken from 1 Timothy 4:1–3, which indicates that demons teach others to forbid certain foods. However, in context, the passage states that this description fits those who prohibit marriage and demand abstinence from foods. No Christian vegan (that we know of) prohibits marriage. This passage is talking about Gnosticism, a competing philosophy in biblical times. Throughout the epistle, Paul criticizes Gnosticism, the Greek word for knowledge. For instance, in 1 Timothy 6:20, Paul states, “Avoid the irreverent babble and contradictions of what is falsely called “knowledge.” This assertion makes sense, as God advocates veganism as an ideal in Genesis 1:29 and Daniel 1:1–21 and is implied in Isaiah 11:6–9.
This question is derived from Revelation 22:15, which states, “Outside are the dogs and sorcerers and the sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.” This verse is talking about those who will be excluded from the eternal New Earth, which is synonymous with heaven. This verse is why many believers think that dogs will be excluded from heaven. However, in biblical times, dogs did not have the esteemed status like they do today in Western nations. Thus, calling a human a “dog” then could be referring to them as a gentile (Matthew 15:26), a male prostitute (Deuteronomy 23:18). or a Judaizer (Philippians 3:2). Revelation 22:15 is not talking about the literal animal, but rather some unrepentant sinful human. This also fits with the description of Revelation 21:8, which is also about those excluded from the New Earth. In conclusion, it is appropriate to believe dogs will be on the New Earth, as Isaiah 11:6–7 and 65:25 describe a variety of domesticated animals living there in peace.
Although many animals are described as being on the New Earth (Isaiah 11:6–9, 34:14–17, 65:25; Hosea 2:18), there is no explicit mention of fish and other marine animals. It is thought that fish and marine animals may not experience the New Earth because of what is stated in Revelation 21:1. This verse says, “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more.” If there is no sea, there would be no fish and other marine animals. However, Isaiah 11:9 mentions a sea being on the New Earth. Our ministry believes that Revelation 21:1 means that the sea as we know it now, a hostile and terrifying body of water, will be no more. Not the sea itself. Psalm 89:9 and Jeremiah 31:35 describe the hostility of the current sea. Furthermore, a river is present on the New Earth (Revelation 22:1–2). Where would this river empty into if there was no sea? In the beginning (Genesis 1:1), God created the seas (1:9–10) and sea creatures (1:20–22). The New Earth (Isaiah 65:17) is a restoration of Eden (51:3). Therefore, we should expect a New Earth sea that teems with life. Thus, the Christian Animal Rights Association believes that fish and other marine animals will be present in a peaceful sea on the New Earth.
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Christians and many Christian organizations commonly use this passage when discussing the ethics of meat, stating that meat-eaters and vegans should tolerate one another or that vegans are considered “weak.” However, that is taking this passage out of context. The author, the Apostle Paul, is talking about meat sacrificed to idols. This was a very hot button issue in several early churches, including in Rome and Corinth. Paul is more explicit about this issue in 1 Corinthians 8:7–8. Those who eat only vegetables were those who thought they would be supporting other gods with their purchases or consumption of meat sacrificed to idols. Paul is stating that their conscience is weak. This passage is essentially Paul stating that those who think differently about food sacrificed to idols should tolerate one another and not fight. Importantly, the passage is not discussing the ethics of meat, such as gluttony or cruelty to animals. Therefore, this passage has little relevance today with whether Christians should eat meat. Veganism is God’s ideal, as seen in Eden (Genesis 1:29), and is implied on the New Earth (Isaiah 11:6–9). Paul knew the Old Testament well (Philippians 3:5) and thus it would not make sense for him to criticize what God wanted all along.
This passage is often used to say that God does not care for animals. The passage states, “For it is written in the Law of Moses, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain.” Is it for oxen that God is concerned? Does he not certainly speak for our sake? It was written for our sake, because the plowman should plow in hope and the thresher thresh in hope of sharing in the crop.” In context, Paul is talking about how Christian ministers should receive compensation for preaching the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:14), which is made more explicit in 1 Timothy 5:18. Some translations make it seem like this passage states that God does not care for oxen and that the original verse, Deuteronomy 25:4, was written for humans all along. However, Paul is not saying this. He is taking the principle of Deuteronomy 25:4, which demands that an ox should be able to eat from the crops he works in the field and applies it to humans. He is stating that ministers who preach the gospel should be fairly compensated. We believe this passage shows the unity of creation. Paul takes a principle addressed originally to animal treatment and applied it to humans. We believe this principle also works in reverse. For instance, many passages that were written exclusively to humans could be applied to animals. For example, Proverbs 24:11 states, “Rescue those who are being taken away to death; hold back those who are stumbling to the slaughter.”
Jesus did say to kill and eat the fattened calf in Luke 15:23, although in context, this was part of the Parable of the Prodigal Son in Luke 15:11–32. Jesus often spoke in parables, which are analogous to what we call allegories today. These are fictional stories that are told to convey an ethical or spiritual truth. Like George Orwell’s Animal Farm is an allegory for the Russian Revolution, the Parable of the Prodigal Son is an allegory for God’s forgiveness and grace. The parable is meant to express God’s blessing on those who repent and receive forgiveness rather than on believers who follow the law just for reward or praise. Importantly, parables are not to be taken literally. They are symbolic of a message, not an endorsement of a behavior. Just like most Christians would agree that Jesus was not endorsing slavery in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant seen in Matthew 18:25, we believe Jesus was also not endorsing the slaughtering of calves with the Parable of the Prodigal Son.
This statement is taken out of Romans 1:25. This verse states, “because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen.” Christians often utilize this verse to criticize animal rights activists, declaring that the activists are worshipping the animals instead of God. However, Romans 1:25 here is taken drastically out of context. Romans 1:23 criticizes those who worship images that look like humans and animals. Thus, Romans 1:25 is criticizing idol worship, a consistent theme in the Bible that goes back to the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:4). In conclusion, Romans 1:25 is not a criticism or a condemnation of serving animals or treating animals with respect.
Isaiah 35:9 states, “No lion shall be there, nor shall any ravenous beast come up on it; they shall not be found there, but the redeemed shall walk there.” In context, Isaiah 34:14–35:10 discusses the future New Earth, which is an eternal paradise that will inaugurate when Jesus returns. Isaiah 11:7 and 65:25 state that many animals will be on the New Earth, including lions. However, Isaiah 35:9 says that “no lion shall be there.” How can we reconcile these verses? We believe Isaiah 35:9 is talking about the current violent nature of the lion, as the second part of the verse mentions that there will be no more “ravenous beast.” This matches with Isaiah 11:7 and 65:25, which both state that lions will eat straw like the oxen. This matches the context too, as Isaiah 34:14 describes hyenas peacefully mingling with other animals. Additionally, jackals are described as lying down with harmless plants in Isaiah 35:7. Presently, lions and hyenas are carnivores, and jackals are quite vicious now, but they will all be peaceful and herbivorous on the New Earth. In conclusion, Isaiah 35:9 basically states that lions will no longer be harmful on the New Earth.
Jesus stated in Matthew 7:12 ESV, “So whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets.” Jesus stated similarly in Luke 6:31 ESV, “And as you wish that others would do to you, do so to them.” However, other translations (like the KJB) address the Golden Rule in Matthew 7:12 and Luke 6:31 to “men” instead of “others.” This difference in interpretation is based on the Greek word, “anthropoi.” The root word, “anthropo” is the Greek word for human. For instance, anthropology means the “study of humanity.” Thus, the Golden Rule appears to have been written to humans. However, Paul (2 Corinthians 1:1) teaches in 2 Corinthians 3:6 the difference between the “Spirit of the law” and the “letter of the law.” Following the letter of the law would mean to follow only the written words in the verse, while the Spirit of the law would mean to follow the broader principle. For instance, Ephesians 5:18 states, “And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit.” Following the letter of the law would mean that you avoid wine but get drunk with beer instead. Following the Spirit of the law, Ephesians 5:18 condemns drunkenness with all forms of alcohol. In conclusion, although the Golden Rule (Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31) was not written to animals at the time, with Paul’s (2 Corinthians 1:1) teaching of the “Spirit of the law,” in 2 Corinthians 3:6, Christian Animal Rights Association applies the Golden Rule (Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31) to humans, as well as animals.
The Bible indicates that Jesus will physically return (Matthew 24:44) to usher in a paradisiacal New Earth (Revelation 21:1). The Bible states that believers (1 Corinthians 6:14) and certain animals (Isaiah 11:6–9, 65:25; Hosea 2:18), or perhaps all animals (Psalm 36:6; Luke 3:6), will reside on the New Earth. Isaiah 34:14–17 may even indicate that animals will breed on the New Earth. How then can there be enough room for all believers and animals? Revelation 21:9–27 speaks about the New Jerusalem, a cosmic paradise that will descend upon the New Earth. The city measures 12,000 stadia in height, width, and length. Importantly, a stadion is about 607 feet. The New Jerusalem then calculates to be about 1,380 miles in height, width, and length – and that is just one city! Plus, our concept of space and time on the New Earth might be different. Regardless, the Bible suggests that the New Earth will be much larger than the current Earth.
Many animal rights activists often quote Exodus 20:13 to dispute against Christians harming animals. Exodus 20:13 ESV states, “You shall not murder.” The much older KJB translation of Exodus 20:13 states, “Thou shalt not kill.” Exodus 20:13 is one of the Ten Commandments and was most certainly written about not killing other humans. However, in 2 Corinthians 3:6, Paul (1:1) teaches the difference between the “Spirit of the law” and the “letter of the law.” Following the letter of the law would mean to follow only the written words in the verse, while the Spirit of the law would mean to follow the broader principle. For instance, Ephesians 5:18 GNT states, “Do not get drunk with wine, which will only ruin you; instead, be filled with the Spirit.” Following the letter of the law would mean that you avoid wine but get drunk with vodka or rum instead. Following the Spirit of the law, Ephesians 5:18 condemns drunkenness with all forms of alcohol. Thus, the Christian Animal Rights Association applies the “Spirit of the law” (2 Corinthians 3:6) to Exodus 20:13. Therefore, our ministry advocates that “Thou shalt not kill” (Exodus 20:13 KJB) and “You shall not murder” (Exodus 20:13 ESV) applies to animals too.
Banner and Corresponding Photo Credit: Indraloka Animal Sanctuary